Some locations near these coasts where the terrain is particularly conducive to causing orographic lift receive up 2,200 mm (87 in) of precipitation per year. While much of the region does experience very low temperatures, there is considerable variability with both location and season. In September and October the days get rapidly shorter, and in northern areas the sun disappears from the sky entirely. Another benefit from the Cold War was the acquisition of observations from United States and Soviet naval voyages into the Arctic. The meteoblue smartphone APP received an honourable mention by WMO, the World Meteorological Organisation. First is the ice-albedo feedback, whereby an initial warming causes snow and ice to melt, exposing darker surfaces that absorb more sunlight, leading to more warming. [7], The map at right shows the areas covered by sea ice when it is at its maximum extent (March) and its minimum extent (September). [2] This snow cover, combined with the ice sheet's elevation, help to keep temperatures here lower, with July averages between −12 and 0 °C (10 and 32 °F). On the June solstice 36% more solar radiation reaches the top of the atmosphere over the course of the day at the North Pole than at the Equator. All variables are measured at relatively few stations in the Arctic, but precipitation observations are made more uncertain due to the difficulty in catching in a gauge all of the snow that falls. These reanalysis datasets help compensate for the lack of observations over the Arctic. The east coast of the central third of the island receives between 200 and 600 mm (7.9 and 23.6 in) of precipitation per year, with increasing amounts from north to south. These pieces of software are sometimes relatively simple, but often become highly complex as scientists try to include more and more elements of the environment to make the results more realistic. The Arctic Archipelago is a truly polar environment. Normally, the average February temperature at Svalbard is minus 16,2 degrees. Though the Vikings explored parts of the Arctic over a millennium ago, and small numbers of people have been living along the Arctic coast for much longer, scientific knowledge about the region was slow to develop; the large islands of Severnaya Zemlya, just north of the Taymyr Peninsula on the Russian mainland, were not discovered until 1913, and not mapped until the early 1930s As a result, the most complete collection of surface observations from the Arctic is for the period 1960 to 1990.[2]. More precipitation falls in winter, when the storm track is most active, than in summer. Sea ice is relatively thin, generally less than about 4 m (13 ft), with thicker ridges (NSIDC). This program operated continuously, with 30 stations in the Arctic from 1950 to 1991. The coastal regions in the southern part of the island are influenced more by open ocean water and by frequent passage of cyclones, both of which help to keep the temperature there from being as low as in the north. You can also see the cold winters in Moscow with a few days that do not even reach -10°C as daily maximum. At the North Pole on the June solstice, around 21 June, the sun circles at 23.5° above the horizon. The legend next to the diagram has a list with the model names and the corresponding colours. This plot shows data from the Soviet North Pole drifting stations, numbers 7 and 8. The Arctic consists of ocean that is largely surrounded by land. The coldest location in the Northern Hemisphere is not in the Arctic, but rather in the interior of Russia's Far East, in the upper-right quadrant of the maps. meteoblue APP receives worldwide WMO award. Note: In tropical climates like in Malaysia or Indonesia the number of precipitation days may be overestimated by a factor up to 2. The most widely used definition, the area north of the Arctic Circle, where the sun does not set on the June Solstice, is used in astronomical and some geographical contexts. Geophysical research letters, 34(9). Furthermore, most of the small amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface is reflected away by the bright snow cover. Scientists have spent the past 15 years pulling together data about the Arctic into a report card. During the winter months of November through February, the sun remains very low in the sky in the Arctic or does not rise at all. Arctic sea ice naturally shrinks and grows with the seasons, but scientists say global warming is accelerating melting to the point where summers in the Arctic … The graph shows the monthly number of sunny, partly cloudy, overcast and precipitation days. Most of the Basin receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of precipitation per year, qualifying it as a desert. It is also the coldest. Sea ice is important to the climate and the ocean in a variety of ways. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), 2007: United States Central Intelligence Agency, 1978: USSR State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environment, and The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (chief editor A.F. In July, 40% to 60% of observations reporting precipitation indicate it was frozen (Serreze and Barry 2005). Between 1947 and 1957, the United States and Canadian governments established a chain of stations along the Arctic coast known as the Distant Early Warning Line (DEWLINE) to provide warning of a Soviet nuclear attack. Beginning in 1979 the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program (the International Arctic Buoy Program since 1991) has been collecting meteorological and ice-drift data across the Arctic Ocean with a network of 20 to 30 buoys. Most Arctic seas are covered by ice for part of the year (see the map in the sea-ice section below); 'ice-free' here refers to those which are not covered year-round. The data is derived from our global NEMS weather model at approximately 30km resolution and cannot reproduce detail local weather effects, such as heat islands, cold air flows, thunderstorms or tornadoes. [2] Another significant moment in Arctic observing before World War II occurred in 1937 when the USSR established the first of over 30 North-Pole drifting stations. National and commercial expeditions continued to expand the detail on maps of the Arctic through the eighteenth century, but largely neglected other scientific observations. By November, winter is in full swing in most of the Arctic, and the small amount of solar radiation still reaching the region does not play a significant role in its climate. The map shows the 10-year average (2000–2009) global mean temperature anomaly relative to the 1951–1980 mean. Finally, changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns caused by a global temperature change may cause more heat to be transferred to the Arctic, enhancing Arctic warming. The Bering Sea is influenced by the North Pacific storm track, and has annual precipitation totals between 400 and 800 mm (16 and 31 in), also with a winter maximum. Hot days and cold nights (dashed red and blue lines) show the average of the hottest day and coldest night of each month of the last 30 years. Owing to the high latitudes, solar energy is limited to the summer months. Wind speeds over the Arctic Basin and the western Canadian Archipelago average between 4 and 6 metres per second (14 and 22 kilometres per hour, 9 and 13 miles per hour) in all seasons. In the more recent past, the planet has experienced a series of ice ages and interglacial periods over about the last 2 million years, with the last ice age reaching its maximum extent about 18,000 years ago and ending by about 10,000 years ago. During these two years thousands of scientists from over 60 nations will co-operate to carry out over 200 projects to learn about physical, biological, and social aspects of the Arctic and Antarctic (IPY). NOAA's North Pole Web Cams having been tracking the Arctic summer sea ice transitions through spring thaw, summer melt ponds, and autumn freeze-up since the first webcam was deployed in 2002–present. The west coast sees more precipitation in … The maximum temperature diagram for Arctic Archipelago displays how many days per month reach certain temperatures. The result is annual precipitation totals of 400 mm (16 in) over the southern interior to over 1,200 mm (47 in) near the southern and southeastern coasts. Despite its location centered on the North Pole, and the long period of darkness this brings, this is not the coldest part of the Arctic. Fifty years after the first IPY, in 1932 to 1933, a second IPY was organized. As such, the climate of much of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C (28 °F). Typically some falling snow is kept from entering precipitation gauges by winds, causing an underreporting of precipitation amounts in regions that receive a large fraction of their precipitation as snowfall. The first diagram shows the predicted temperatures for each model. These factors result in a negligible input of solar energy to the Arctic in winter; the only things keeping the Arctic from continuously cooling all winter are the transport of warmer air and ocean water into the Arctic from the south and the transfer of heat from the subsurface land and ocean (both of which gain heat in summer and release it in winter) to the surface and atmosphere. The continued low temperatures, and the persisting white snow cover, mean that this additional energy reaching the Arctic from the sun is slow to have a significant impact because it is mostly reflected away without warming the surface. This record was lengthened in the early 1990s when two deeper cores were taken from near the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Annual mean temperatures in the Arctic are predicted to increase by 4–7°C during this century, with the greatest warming to occur in winter (as much as 12°C according to one emissions scenario). Summer sun thaws permafrost in the top layers of soil. Along the coast, temperatures are kept from varying too much by the moderating influence of the nearby water or melting sea ice. Serreze, Mark C. and Roger Graham Barry, 2005: ocean surrounding the North Pole was ice-free, summer sea ice transitions through spring thaw, summer melt ponds, and autumn freeze-up, "Representation of Mean Arctic Precipitation from NCEP–NCAR and ERA Reanalyses", 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0182:ROMAPF>2.0.CO;2, Aerosols May Drive a Significant Portion of Arctic Warming, "Studies of the Arctic Suggest a Dire Situation", Video on Climate Research in the Bering Sea, The Future of Arctic Climate and Global Impacts, How Climate Change Is Growing Forests in the Arctic, Arctic Ice Caps May Be More Prone to Melt; A new core pulled from Siberia reveals a 2.8-million-year history of warming and cooling, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_of_the_Arctic&oldid=992016138, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from July 2018, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Arctic Basin includes the Arctic Ocean within the average minimum extent of sea ice, The entire island of Greenland, although its, The Arctic waters that are not sea ice in late summer, including. 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